Abd Halim bin Md Hashim v Azila Bt Ramli @ Ismail [2017] 2 SHLR 57


Shariah High Court (Shah Alam)

Validity of Marriage


1. The First Applicant, Abd Halim bin Md Hashim and the Second Applicant, Azila bt Ramli @ Ismail were married on 27 March 2005 in Gopeng, Perak.  They were blessed with three children.

2. The First Applicant, before the marriage already had a wife and the Second Applicant still had a father who lived in Tumpat, Kelantan, who was also wali mujbir for the Second Applicant.

3. However, during the marriage, the Second Applicant instead of taking her father as her wali, had appointed a wali hakim.

4. Later, the Applicants received a letter from the Administration of Islamic Office, Kampung Gajah, Perak indicating that the certificate of marriage of the Applicants was false and was never issued by any deputy registrar of the kariah in the area.


1.  Whether the marriage between the First Applicant and the Second Applicant on 27 March 2005 is accordance with hukum syarak?

2. Whether the nasab of the children can be accredited to the First Applicant?

Ratios 1.  The validity of the marriage

(a) Section 11 of the Islamic Family Law (State of Selangor) Enactment 2003 provides that-

“Void marriages

A marriage shall be void unless all conditions necessary, according to Hukum Syarak for the validity thereof are satisfied”.

(b) Therefore, a marriage is valid if it is accordance with Hukum Syarak.

(c)  In the book of Mughni Al-Muhtaj Ila Ma’rifat Ma’ani Al-Minhaj, Volume 5, page 226, Al Syarbini Al-Khatib stated that there are five (5) requirements of marriage as follows:

(i)             sighah

(ii)            the groom

(iii)           the bride

(iv)          two male witnesses

(v)           wali

(d) Thus, both applicants in this case should prove that all the requirements of marriage are fulfilled.

2. The requirements of marriage

(a) The groom

(i)  The Court referred to the marriage certificate (surat perakuan nikah) in the Second Applicant’s affidavit and it was clearly stated that the First Applicant is the groom.

(ii)  Therefore, the Court was satisfied that the First Applicant was the groom during the solemnization on 27 March 2005 and he was the one who pronounced qabul.

(b) The bride

(i)  The First Applicant in his affidavit stated that the Second Applicant was unmarried woman (anak dara), and it is supported by the statement given by the wali.

(c) Wali

(i)  According to the statement made by the First Applicant on 21 May 2012, the wali during the solemnization was a wali hakim named Mustapha bin Jaapar.

(ii)  The main issue that arises in determining the validity of the marriage in this case is whether the wali of the marriage claimed by the Applicants as the wali hakim is valid under Hukum Syarak.

(iii)  The Court referred to the book of Fiqh al-Sunnah by Sayyid Sabiq, volume 2, page 84 where the Prophet S.A.W said-

“From ‘Aishah, Prophet SAW said: Any woman who marries herself without the permission of her wali, then her marriage is void.  If her husband has had intercourse with her, then she is entitled to her dowry. If the wali refuses to marry her, then the judge acts as the wali for someone who does not have a wali”.

(iv) In this case, the Court referred to the wali’s affidavit stating that the wali of the Second Applicant, i.e. the father, at the time of the marriage was not informed by the Applicants.  At the time of the marriage, the wali was at his home in Kelantan and the wedding took place in Gopeng, Perak.

(v)  The transfer of wali from wali mujbir to wali hakim cannot be allowed as the Court found that at the time of the marriage, wali mujbir of the Second Applicant was still alive and still residing in this country.

(vi)  Although the distance between Tumpat Kelantan where the wali resides and Gopeng Perak, where the wedding took place, is more than two miles (more than 90km), the Court found that the status of the jurunikah claimed by the Applicants to be wali hakim is invalid because the appointed wali hakim must get a certificate from the Majlis Agama Islam of a state.

(vii)  Therefore, the Court confirmed that the third requirement of marriage which is wali in this marriage is invalid (tidak sah) according to Hukum Syarak.

(d) The witnesses

(i)  Both Applicants in their affidavit mentioned that the witnesses during their solemnization were Abdul Ghani bin Ismail and Mohd Animokmin bin Jelani (“the Witnesses”).

(ii)  The Witnesses name are stated in the marriage certificate and both of them are relatives to the First Applicant.

(iii)  Thus, the Court is satisfied that the requirement for witnesses has been fulfilled.

(e) Sighah

(i)  Referring to the First Applicant’s statement in his affidavit, the pronouncement of ijab was made by wali hakim

Aku nikahkan dikau dengan Azila Bt Ramli dengan mas kahwin RM80 tunai”.

(ii)  Meanwhile, the qabul  made by the First Applicant was-

Aku terima nikahnya Azila bt Ramli dengan maskahwinnya RM80 tunai”.

(iii)  Based on the pronouncement of ijab and kabul made by wali hakim and the First Applicant, fulfilled the requirement for sighah.

3. The nasab of the children

(a) In deciding the nasab  of the children, the Court referred to the book of Fiqh Al-Islami Wa Adillatuhu by Wahbah al-Zuhaili at page 621 where-

“the requirements for filiation (nasab) on the paternal side are:

(a)            A valid marriage

(b)            A fasid marriage

(c)            Syubhah  intercourse”.

(b) Under the Islamic Family Law (State of Selangor) Enactment 2003, section 114 provides that-

“Syubhah Intercourse

Where a man has syubhah sexual intercourse with a woman, and she is subsequently delivered of a child between the period of six qamariah months to four qamariah years after the intercourse, the paternity of the child shall be ascribed to the man”.

(c)  In addition, section 115 of the Islamic Family Law (State of Selangor) Enactment 2003,

“Conditions for valid acknowledgment

Where a man acknowledges another, either expressly or impliedly, as his lawful child, the paternity of the child shall be established in the man, if the following conditions are fulfilled, that is to say-

(a) the paternity of the child is not established in any one else;
(b) the ages of the man and the child are such that filial relationship is possible between them;
(c) where the child is of discreet age, the child has acquiesced in the acknowledgment;
(d) the man and mother of the child could have been lawfully joined in marriage at the time of conception;
(e) the acknowledgment is not merely that the child is his child, but that the child is his legitimate child;
(f) the man is competent to make a contract;
(g) the acknowledgment is with the distinct intention of conferring the status of legitimacy; or
(h) the acknowledgment is definite and the child is acknowledged to be the child of his body”.

(d) The Court also referred to the book Bujairimi alaal-Khatib, Volume 3, page 359 regarding the definition of wati’ syubhah

“….wati syubhah itu seperti di zon bahawa perempuan itu adalah isteri atau hamba atau wati’ keatas hamba yang disyariatkan untuk lelaki itu dengan lain-lain lelaki atau salah seorang daripada hamba-hamba tersebut, begitu juga jika dilakukan wati’ dengan sebab dimaklumkan kepadanya bahawa perkahwinan itu sah, sedang sebenarnya perkahwinan tersebut tidak sah”.

(e)  In addition, the Court also referred to the book written by Wahbah al-Zuhaili in Fiqh al-Islami Wa Adilatuhu at the page 686-687, where it states-

“Perkahwinan yang fasid dalam menentukan nasab adalah sama seperti perkahwinan yang sah, kerana langkah berjaga-jaga dalam menentukan nasab demi untuk masa depan kehidupan anak dan demi penjagaannya.  Syarat bagi menentukan nasab dengan sebab perkahwinan fasid ada tiga:

(1)  Suami terdiri daripada orang yang boleh menghamilkan iaitu baligh di sisi ulama’Maliki dan Shafie; baligh atau remaja di sisi ulama’ Hanafi atau Hanbali.

(2)  Berlaku persetubuhan dengan perempuan ataupun khalwat pada pendapat ulama’ Maliki.  Jika tiada persetubuhan atau khalwat selepas perkahwinan fasid maka tidak sabit nasab anak kerana khalwat pada permulaan perkahwinan fasid adalah sama seperti khalwat pada perkahwinan yang sah kerana berpeluang melakukan persetubuhan.  Ulama’ Hanafi mensyaratkan berlaku persetubuhan sahaja.  Khalwat tidak memadai untuk menentukan nasab dengan sebab perkahwinan yang fasid kerana tidak dihalakan persetubuhan antara lelaki dan perempuan

(3)  Perempuan melahirkan anak selepas enam bulan atau lebih dari tarikh persetubuhan atau khalwat di sisi ulama’ Maliki dan dari tarikh persetubuhan di sisi ulama’ Hanafi.  Jika perempuan melahirkan anak sebelum masa berlalu enam bulan dari tarikh persetubuhan dan khalwat, maka tidak disabitkan nasab daripada lelaki itu kerana ia menunjukkan bahawa dia telah hamil sebelum bersetubuh dan dia adalah anak daripada lelaki yang lain.  Jika sebaliknya berlaku maka sabit nasab anak daripada suami melalui perkahwinan yang fasid”.

(f)   Therefore, the Court accredited the nasab of the children to the First Applicant.


1. The marriage between the First and Second Applicants on 27 March 2005 was not valid and they ought to be separated (faraq).

2. The nasab of the children born as the result of the marriage was accredited to the First Applicant.

Key Take Away 1. The requirement for a wali’s consent in a marriage is clearly stated in the Quran and Sunnah.  In Surah An-Nisa verse 25 states that –

and whoever among you cannot find the means to marry free, believing women, then he may marry those whom your right hands possesses of believing slave girls.  And Allah is most knowing about your faith.  You believers are of one another.  So marry them with the permission of their people and give them their due compensation…..”

2. In the absence of the bride’s father or brother during her marriage, the paternal male relative, who is closest to her, will be her wali.


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